Although foreigners can register for many services in Israel by using their passport numbers instead of Israeli identification number (teudat/mispar zehut), this does not seem to be the case with Golan Telecom. This is something I’ve heard on the grapevine, and now it is somewhat “confirmed” on a Twitter post, albeit from May:
@thecocoabean2 כרגע אין אפשרות להרשם ללא תעודת זהות
— Golan Telecom (@GolanTelecom) May 30, 2012
This is definitely something to keep in mind for visitors (long- or shorter-term stay)! HOT Mobile seems to allow registration via their phone service by passport number, in case the other options fail, and you are looking to join a new carrier. All veteran carriers, to my knowledge, accept foreigners/passport numbers for registration.